Acupuncture has been shown to be useful at easing a variety of pain conditions. It has a diverse array of mechanisms that work to reduce pain and assist healing. It is safe to use in the long-term, avoiding any drug-related side-effects. On top of this it is safe to use alongside said drugs. It is also useful for pain-related symptoms, such as stress, lethargy, and depression.
Pain is a huge problem in the UK, affecting at least 15% of the population at any one time. Over 70% of adults will suffer from back pain during their lifetime. Pain can lead to depression in 22% of people. 25% of those with pain will lose their jobs. The economic burden of lower back pain, alone, is nearly £11 billion in lost productivity and benefit payments.
The most common approach for treating pain is with analgesic (pain-killing) medications. These can be useful in the short-term, however, in long-term, chronic pain cases, patients can become tolerant to medication, needing stronger medications and/or higher doses. This can lead to a variety of side effects ranging from nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lethargy and constipation to (in extreme cases) addiction, heart attack and stroke.
Acupuncture for pain
Acupuncture, has no long-term risks associated with it and has been shown, in a range of studies, to be safe. It has also been shown to be beneficial for a variety of pain conditions. The World Health Organisation, among other international health organisations, recommends acupuncture for an ever increasing list of painful conditions, including;
- Abdominal pain
- Acute spinal pain
- Arthritic knee pain
- Biliary colic
- Dental pain
- Facial pain
- Fibromyalgia and fasciitis
- Gouty arthritis
- Knee pain
- Neck pain
- Postoperative pain
- Renal colic
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Shoulder pain
- Stiff neck
- Temporomandibular pain
- Tennis elbow
Recent reviews of clinical trials are becoming so convinced that acupuncture is beneficial for pain conditions that they are starting to recommend that acupuncture be adopted as part of a multimodal approach for treating pain.
How does acupuncture benefit painful conditions?
Acupuncture has been used to treat pain for millenia. It was known to do so by balancing the mind and body and restoring physiological functioning. Research is showing a variety of mechanisms that contribute to these effects. It has been shown to do this by:
- Stimulating the release of endorphins and other neuro-humoral factors (e.g. neuropeptide Y, serotonin) that changes the processing of pain in the brain and spinal cord (Pomeranz 1987, Han 2004, Zhao 2008, Zhou 2008, Lee 2009, Cheng 2009)
- Increasing the release of adenosine, which blocks the detection of pain (Goldman 2010)
- Modulating the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network, which is involved in pain sensations (Hui 2009)
- Reducing inflammation, by promoting release of vascular and immunomodulatory factors (Kavoussi 2007, Zijlstra 2003)
- improving muscle stiffness and joint mobility by increasing local micro-circulation which aids dispersal of swelling and pain (Komori 2009)